RhodesPrivateTours.com

Rhodes Private Day Tours, Shore Excursions, Taxi Tours Greece

rhodes private tours
"La Juderia" (the Jewish Quarter)

 


The Jewish Community of the Island of Rhodes has a rich history that dates back to the second century BC, with the earliest reference to it appearing in the book of Maccabees. Other references to the Jewish presence in the Island are found in the writings of the Jewish historian Josephus Flavius. The Jews of Rhodes like the other Jews living in Greece and in its Islands spoke Greek and conducted the religious services in Greek, following the Romaniote rite, which is distinct from Sephardi, Ashkenaz, and Italian rites.

During the reign of the Knights of St. John in the 14th century, the Jews of the Island were relegated to the southeast section of the old city, where they continued to live until their deportation in 1944 to the Nazi extermination camps. In the year 1500, the Grand Master d'Aubusson expelled all the Jews who did not choose to convert to Christianity. So it seems that the Island of Rhodes was for a short time free of Jews, until 1522 Suleiman the Magnificent of the Ottomans wished to repopulate the Jewish section of the Island. Thus he invited Jews from various parts of his empire to come to Rhodes and start a new community. The Jews that came were Sephardim, the ones who had found refuge in the Ottoman Empire following the expulsion from Spain in 1492. These Jews brought with them a vibrant culture filled with customs and traditions. One cultural aspect was linguistic. The language they spoke was Judeo-Espanol, commonly known as a "Ladino." The Jewish Quarter of the city was affectionately known as "La Juderia".

At the beginning of the 20th century, many young Jews left Rhodes in search of better economic opportunities in the Americas and in parts of Africa. In the early 1920s the community reached its peak population of 4,500 souls. But the growth stopped when many more left after the enforcement of the Racial Laws by the fascist government of Italy, which had occupied the Dodecanese Islands since 1912.

In 1943, Rhodes was taken over by the Germans. In less than a year, 1,673 members of the Jewish community were arrested and deported to the Auschwitz concentration camp, where 1,522 were slaughtered. Only 151 survived, many of whom immigrated to Southern African countries, Israel, the United States and other places. In 1947 the Island was ceded to Greece as part of the spoils of war. Today there are only a handful of Jews living in Rhodes. The synagogue, the homes and the cemetery are there to remind us of a thriving, close-knit community that had lived on the Island for centuries.

Al Chatef Street, Customized Tours of RhodesZoom The Jewish Quarter, Exclusive Tours of RhodesZoom
"Al Chatef" street is named for an honored family who once lived here in Rhodes.
The Jewish Quarter.

Israelite Universelle School, Custom Tours in RhodesZoom The Jewish Quarter, Rhodes Exclusive ToursZoom
Israelite Universelle School; The dedication plaque above the fountain of the Jewish school of Rhodes is all that exists today. An inscription to General Ameglio, the first Italian military commander of Rhodes.
The Jewish Quarter.

 

↑ BACK TO THE TOP ↑

 

The Square of the Martyred Jews

The "Square of the Martyred Jews" (known in Greek as " Evreon Martyron "), is located in the heart of the former Jewish Quarter. The square was originally an area of Jewish homes and small shops. However, the area was bombed during World War II, and in its place was established a small park and square. The present fountain ornamented with three seahorses replaced a previous fountain that was destroyed during World War II.

The Square of the Martyred Jews, Custom made tours in RhodesZoom The Holocaust Memorial, the Jewish Quarter, Exclusive Tours in Rhodes IslandZoom
 
The Holocaust Memorial was dedicated on June 23, 2002 in memory of the World War II victims from Rhodes and the island of Cos.
↑ BACK TO THE TOP ↑

 

The "Kahal Shalom" synagogue

The "Kahal Shalom" is the oldest synagogue in Greece, and the sole remaining Jewish synagogue on Rhodes used for services. There was once six synagogues in the Jewish Quarter (called "La Juderia"). The "Kahal Shalom" was built in the year 1577. The full name of the building is "Kahal Kadosh Shalom" (Holy Congregation of Peace). It is used for prayer services when visitors or former residents and their families visit the island for Friday night services, High Holiday services and for special occasions. A great Woman Lucia Soulam, a survivor of Aushwitz, is the caretaker of the "Kahal Shalom" Synagogue in Rhodes. She speaks Judeo Spanish (Ladino), Italian, Greek and a little French and Turkish and very little English.

The Kahal Shalom synagogue, Customized Tours in GreeceZoom
The old main entrance to the Kahal Shalom synagogue leads first to a small courtyard and then into the synagogue itself.

The Kahal Shalom Synagogue, Custom Tours in RhodesZoom The Kahal Shalom Synagogue, Rhodes Exclusive ToursZoom
The interior of the Kehila Shalom synagogue follows the traditional Sephardic style of having the "tevah" (the prayer reading table) in the center of the sanctuary facing southeast toward Jerusalem.

The Kahal Shalom Synagogue, Custom made tours in RhodesZoom The Kahal Shalom Synagogue, Exclusive Tours in Rhodes IslandZoom
 
There is also a balcony that was created in 1935, as a result of a liberalization of religious policy, to be used as a women's prayer area. Prior to that time the women sat in the rooms adjacent to the south wall of the synagogue that viewed the sanctuary through curtained openings. Those rooms are now being utilized for the Jewish Museum of Rhodes.
↑ BACK TO THE TOP ↑

 

The Rhodes Jewish Museum

Here you will be provided with information regarding the historical exhibition which is located in the rooms formerly used as the women's prayer rooms at the "Kahal Shalom" synagogue, it is home to a memorial of the once large Jewish community here in Rhodes, housing many photos and memorial plaques.

The Jewish Museum, Customized Tours in GreeceZoom The Jewish Museum, Exclusive tours in GreeceZoom
The Jewish Museum, Customized Tours of RhodesZoom The Jewish Museum, Exclusive Tours of RhodesZoom
The Jewish Museum, Custom Tours in RhodesZoom The Jewish Museum, Rhodes Exclusive ToursZoom
The Jewish Museum, Custom made tours in RhodesZoom The Jewish Museum, Exclusive Tours in Rhodes IslandZoom

 

↑ BACK TO THE TOP ↑

 

Aron Hasson
The Rhodes Jewish Historical Foundation, Customized Tours in Greece The Rhodes Jewish Historical Foundation, Exclusive tours in Greece
The Rhodes Jewish Historical Foundation, which is a nonprofit organization founded by Aron Hasson, and was established to preserve the unique history of the Jews of Rhodes.

 

He was born in Los Angeles and he is a third generation "Rhodesli". He is an attorney in Los Angeles where he has been practicing immigration law since 1980. He was inspired to visit the island of Rhodes in 1975 by stories told to him by his grandparents. Its special charm and history fascinated him. Several years later, in 1995, he came back to Rhodes with his family for his children to learn of their family heritage. It was during that trip that he noticed the need of advancin the public awareness and appreciation of its unique history unfortunately devastated by the Holocaust.

 

↑ BACK TO THE TOP ↑

 

The Jewish Cemetery

Originally the Jewish cemeteries in Rhodes were forced to be moved by the Italian government during the late 1930's away from the Jewish Quarter to its present location in the new city. The Jewish Cemetery is one of the best preserved in Europe and contains tombstones from the 1500's to the present and it is located outside the Old City of Rhodes along the main road towards Kalitheas and Faliraki. Excavations of additional tombstones are continuing and during the last five years over 300 burial stones have been uncovered.

The Jewish Cemetery, Customized Tours of RhodesZoom The Jewish Cemetery, Exclusive Tours of RhodesZoom
Path in the Jewish Cemetery.
Excavated tombstones lined up ready for translating and viewing in the Jewish Cemetery just outside Rhodes town.

Jewish marble monument, Custom Tours in RhodesZoom Jewish marble monument, Rhodes Exclusive ToursZoom
A marble monument identifies the 2,000 Jews of Rhodes and Kos killed during the Holocaust, it is dedicated to the loss of life.
Excavated tombstones.

 

↑ BACK TO THE TOP ↑

 

Books and Movies about the "Rhodesli" and the Jewish Community of Rhodes

The "Rhodesli" are a little-known Sephardic sect who lived on the Mediterranean island of Rhodes from 1492, when they were expelled from Spain and Portugal, to World War II. Their culture, which is from 800 B.C survives as a small emigre community in Los Angeles. Their complex ethnic and religious heritage is unique in the world today. The Rhodesli are Jews who speak a rare medieval Spanish dialect (Ladino) and observe traditions derived from Turkish, Moorish, Spanish, and Jewish sources that remain mostly unchanged from centuries past.

  • The Jews of Rhodes - The History of a Sephardic Community, Rabbi Marc Angel
  • La cita en Buenos Aires - Sega de una Familia Sefaradi, Vittorio Alhadeff
  • I Remember Rhodes, Rebecca Amato Levy
  • Un dia mas de vida - Rodas, Auschwitz, Buenos AIRES, David Galante
  • The Jewish Martyrs of Rhodes and Cos, Hiskia M. Franco
  • The Juderia - A holocaust Survivor's Tribute to the Jewish Community of Rhodes, Laura Varon
  • Erase una vez..Sefarad - Los Sefaradies del Mediterraneo, Su Historia, Su Cultura, Helene Gutkowski
  • Rhodes, un pan de notre memorie., Moise Rahmani
  • Aki Rodes.

 

↑ BACK TO THE TOP ↑

 

Movies

The Documentaries:(1995)

  • "L' Isola delle rose, la tragedia di un paradiso" (Italian production - The Island of Roses, the tragedy of a paradise): The Rhodeslis Jewish community goes back to the golden age of Italian rule and survived until the height of WWII, Samona tells a rather simple story about family survival -through passed down traditions, food, songs, rituals, and their medieval Ladino Spanish dialect - using extensive family photos, newsreel and archival footage. Director: Rebecca Samona
  • "Rhodes nostalgie / Rhodes for Ever": Is a contemporary portrait that ties the Jews of Rhodes with their descendants. It tells the remarkable but largely unknown story of these people who despite the physical destruction of their community during WWII, managed to transplant their unique Jewish culture elsewhere, notably in the Belgian Congo and Europe. (Belgian production) by Dian Perlstein. A big part of the documentaries filmed in the Old Town.
  • Island Of Roses, The Jews of Rhodes in Los Angeles (1995, 55 minutes): Gregori Viens has written, directed, and coproduced, with Mati Franco, Island of Roses: The Jews of Rhodes in Los Angeles. This stunning videotape documents with spirited sensitivity the lives of Sephardic Jews in Rhodes and Los Angeles. Director: Gregory Viens
  • Adio (1998, 19 minutes): Adio is about listening to stories that a grandmother tells. And it's also about culture, religion... Director: Gregory Viens

 

↑ BACK TO THE TOP ↑

 

Related Links "Rhodesli's" History and Traditions

 

↑ BACK TO THE TOP ↑